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Damages, Remedy 及Indemnity三者的区别
Damages强调金钱等损害赔偿,Remedy强调损害赔偿的救济方式,Indemnity强调担保和赔偿两方面。

英文合同中经常出现damages, remedy indemnity三个词,这三个词都与赔偿有关,但因为中外法律体系和法律词汇的差异,导致很多译员,包括专业的法律英语翻译者,经常会将此三者混淆。以下对三者的区别做简要比较:

 

1.         根据韦伯法律词典,Damagesthe money awarded to a party in a civil suit as reparation for the loss or injury for which another is liable。尽管法律词典目前仍将damages严格定义为金钱赔偿,但事实上damages 的种类很多,但最常见的有compensatory damages punitive damages nominal damages,以及 aggravated damages四种,其中compensatory damagespunitive damages nominal damages均为金钱补偿(pecuniary damages),即均属于赔偿金范畴,只有 aggravated damages为非金钱补偿(non-pecuniary damages),即不属于赔偿金。 compensatory damages为补偿性赔偿金,指根据实际损失的多少予以的赔偿;punitive damages 为惩罚性赔偿金,指因过错人所犯过失恶劣等故而处的超出实际损失数量之赔偿,一般用于侵权而非违约之诉;nominal damages为象征性赔偿金,指证明被告有过错但却无法证明实际损失时所处的数额很少的一种赔偿金;而aggravated damages 则为加重的损害赔偿,指如受害人受伤害太深等无法用金钱补偿时所处的除金钱之外的补偿,其中包括如赔礼道歉、合同的实际履行等等。

2.         根据韦伯法律词典,Remedythe means to enforce a right or to prevent or obtain redress for a wrong: the relief (as  damages, restitution, specific performance, or an injunction) that may be given or ordered by a court or other tribunal for a wrongremedy通常指的是一方违约时,他方得主张之损害赔偿方法。着重于救济的方式和方法,包括金钱损害赔偿monetary damages、不当得利的返还restitution、衡平救济及抗辩equitable damages and defense(如强制执行令、解除合同等)等救济方式。   

3.         根据韦伯法律词典,Indemnity(a) security against hurt, loss, or damage; (b) exemption from incurred penalties or liabilities。可见,Indemnity其实含有担保及赔偿的双重意义,亦即,一方担保不使他方受有损害,他方若受有损害则由该一方负责赔偿(或补偿)。常见的indemnity条款见担保赔偿条款样本--中英文对照