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产业目录

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 --外籍人士在华生活       Professionals Living in China

关键词:中国投资环境、外商投资法律法规、外商投资形式、企业注册登记、投资政策及优惠、中国(上海)自由贸易实验区、外商投资产业指导目录(2011年修订)、中西部地区外商投资优势产业目录(2013年修订)、外商投资项目核准、外商投资企业设立审批、外商投资企业设立程序、外籍人士在华生活、外国人就业、外国人出入境、外国人子女教育、房屋买卖和租赁、执业签证、就业许可证、居留证、个人所得税


Keywords: china overview, china laws and policies, foreign investment policies, form of foreign investment, enterpriese registration, preferencial policies, China (Shanghai) Pilot  Free Trade Zone, Three Catalogues of foreign investment Industries, Catalogue of Advantaged Industries for Foreign Investment in the Central-Western Region, examination and approval authority, procedures for establishing enterprises with foreign investment, living in China, entry and exist, residency, property, basic education for the children, employment procedures, work visa, residency permit






出入境

Entry-Exit &

Residence

旅游休闲

Tourism &

Entertainment

  房屋居住

Property &

Housing

医疗保健

Medical

Service

子女教育

Children

Education

1 Entry-Exist and Residence


1.1 Entry Visa


For entry into China, foreigners shall apply for visas from Chinese diplomatic missions, consular offices or other resident agencies abroad authorized by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.


Visas are categorized as diplomatic visas, courtesy visas, business visas and ordinary visas. Business people usually use ordinary visas. According to the stated purpose of foreigners' visit to China, the ordinary visas shall be marked with such Chinese phonetic letters as D visa, Z visa, X visa, F visa and L visa.


D visa is issued to foreigners who come to China for permanent residence;

Z visa is issued to foreigners and their accompanying family members who come to China for a post or employment;

X visa is issued to foreigners who come to China to study, to engage in advanced studies, or to have an internship, for a period of 6 months or more;

F visa is issued to foreigners who are invited to China for a visit, inspection, lecture, business, scientific, technical or cultural exchanges, or for short-term advanced studies or internship, etc. for a period of not exceeding 6 months;

L visa is issued to foreigners who come to China for sightseeing, visiting relatives or other private purposes;

G visa is issued to foreigners transit through China;

C visa is issued to train attendants, airline crews and seamen and their accompanying family members in international operations; and

J-1 visa is issued to foreigners who come to China as a resident correspondent, while J-2 visa to foreign correspondents who come to China for covering special events.


In case of urgent business, if the foreigner does not have enough time to apply for a visa at the Chinese agencies abroad, as long as he/she has the invitation letter issued by the authorized agency in China and an ordinary passport of the country with which China have diplomatic relations or official trade contacts, he/she can apply for the visa from the port visa agencies authorized by the State Ministry of Public Security of PRC. Port visa agencies are located in Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin, Dalian, Fuzhou, Xiamen, Xi'an, Guilin, Hangzhou, Kunming, Guangzhou (Baiyun Airport), Shenzhen (Luohu, Huanggang, Shekou), Zhuhai (Gongbei) and etc.


The entry of Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan compatriots shall abide by the relevant state regulations. With entry-exist permits and home-visit permits issued by the public security departments, the compatriots shall enter China through China's open ports.  


1.2 Entry


Foreigners shall, upon arrival at a Chinese port, present to the border inspection office for examination their valid passport with visa and other relevant certificates issued by the Chinese government, and fill in incoming passenger cards. They may enter the country after the border inspection office has examined, approved and stamped their certificates.


Incoming passengers shall declare their luggage to the Customs. Relevant regulations regarding the customs declaration are posted at the port entrance. Except for prohibited goods, luggage of reasonable quantities and for personal use only carried by the foreigners is allowed to enter by the Customs enjoying tax exemption.


1.3 Residence Permits


Foreigners who hold D, Z, X or J-1 visas and foreigners who need to stay in China for over 30 days and are granted with free-visa entry according to the agreement signed between the Chinese government and the foreign government, shall, within 30 days of entry, go through the procedures with the public security bureau of the city or county where they are to reside for the residence permit for foreigners or temporary residence permit for foreigners. Foreigners who hold F, L, G, C or J-2 visas may stay in China within the time limits as their visas indicate, without the necessity to obtain the residence permits.


The term of validity of the aforesaid residence certificates shall be the time limits of the authorized stay in China for the certificate holder. The residence permit for foreigners shall be issued to those who will stay in China for a period of one year or more. The term of validity of the residence permit for foreigners shall be one to five years. Foreigners who invest in China and have remarkable results in economic, technological and cultural cooperation with China are eligible for permanent residence in China. The temporary residence permit for foreigners shall be issued to those who will stay in China for a period of less than one year. From July, 2013, the minimum term of validity of the residence permit for foreigners shall be 180 days.


1.4 Exit


Foreigners shall leave the country within the time limits specified in their visas, or within the term of validity of their residence certificates. Where holders of residence certificates for foreigners leave and are to reenter China within the term of validity of their residence certificates, they shall, before exiting, apply to the local public security organ for a reentry visa. Holders of residence certificate for foreigners shall, when leaving China, present their residence certificate to the border inspection office for cancellation if they will not return to the country.


2 Property


Rental matters: According to the relevant provisions of China, in order to safeguard national security, social order, or other public interest, city and county public security bureau can prohibit foreigners or foreign institutions from establishing residence or office in some area. Only local public security bureau approved real estate can be rented to foreigners. In general, foreigners cannot rent apartments from ordinary residential districts or domestic sales of commercial housing for domestic sales; however, in some cities such restrictions are gradually getting relaxed.


Purchase matters: Foreigners can purchase commercial housing in China in accordance with related Chinese laws. The property purchased by foreigners in China is regarded as private property, and the owner shall register his/her property at the local real estate management authority within the prescribed period in order to obtain the property right certificate.


Sale Matters: Foreigners can sell their private property. After the transaction, buyers and sellers are required to go through the transfer and alteration registration procedures at the local real estate management authorities.


Inheritance matters: Foreigners who inherit property in China shall apply to the notary office of their country of residence for a notarial certificate to prove their occupation, address, and the kinship between them and the people who bequeathed the property. Matters regarding the inheritance of property in China by foreigners are governed by the laws of China.


3 Basic Education for the Children


In China, only provincial education departments approved middle and primary schools are allowed to receive foreign students. Currently, only three categories of schools are qualified, i.e. international schools, schools open for foreigners and embassy schools.


International schools are divided into two sub-categories: A. international schools set up by legally established foreign institutions, foreign enterprises, and China office of international organizations as well as by foreigners with legal residence permit. For instance: Shanghai American School, Shanghai Japanese School, Shanghai German School, Shanghai French School and etc.. B. foreign students-oriented tutorial center set up by foreign institutions and individuals. This type of schools mainly has two kinds of curricula: one is "international course" mainly taught in English; the other is "country-specific course", which is based on the curriculum of a specific country. International schools of great variety can offer education from kindergarten to senior high school.

Schools open for foreigners refer to the primary and middle schools that are allowed to take foreign students upon the approval of provincial education departments. All localities in China have this kind of schools. These schools usually do not have separate classes for foreign students but offer Chinese tutorial classes for them.


Embassy schools are mainly for children of the employees in the foreign embassies and consulates in China and children of other personnel in China.


Foreign students usually live with their parents or guardians, but some schools also offer dormitories for foreign students.


Foreign students will obtain a diploma after finishing school and passing exams. Those who do not finish school will have a certificate proving their study experience.


4 Medical Service


4.1 Hospitals


According to their facilities, professional level, and service quality, hospitals in China are graded into three levels: level-1, level-2 and level-3 (level-3 is the highest level), and hospitals of each level are further categorized into grade-A, grade-B and grade-C (grade-A is the highest grade). Level-1 hospitals are mainly public health centers, providing prevention, medical, health care and rehabilitation services for communities. Level-2 hospitals are regional hospitals, providing comprehensive medical and health services. Level-3 hospitals mainly provide specialist medical and health services.


Most of the hospitals are funded by the government and are not-for-profit. A small portion of the hospitals and health centers are collectively or privately run. In addition, some foreign medical institutions in China also set up medical institutions in China to provide medical services mainly for foreigners.


Foreigners can go to any medical institution for medical treatment at the same cost as Chinese residents. In general, the higher-level hospitals charge more.


4.2 Emergency Service


Almost all hospitals are equipped with an ER to provide emergency service. When a foreigner is in need of emergency service, the hospital will pre-pay his/her medical expenses and provide emergency saving service or escort him/her abroad.


In case of medical emergency, you can dial 120; every city in China has a 120 Medical Emergency Center.  


5 Tourism


5.1 Tourist Attractions Open to Foreigners


Most cities and counties in China are open to foreigners, who, with valid passports, visas or residence certificates, can visit these places freely without applying for travel permits. For those cities and counties that are not open to foreigners, one has to first apply for a travel permit from the local municipal/county public security bureau before visit these places. Without permit, foreigners are not allowed to visit those places.


Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan people enjoy equal treatment as mainland residents and can travel freely to any place in China.


5.2 Tourism Services


Travel agencies: Chinese travel agencies are divided into two categories: international travel agencies and domestic travel agencies. International travel agencies are eligible to provide services for foreign tourists, e.g. transportation, sightseeing, accommodation, catering, shopping, entertainment and tour guide services and they can also provide facilitating services for entry and exit and visa formalities. Domestic travel agencies generally only provide domestic tourism service for domestic tourists. Foreigners who work and live in China generally should choose international travel agencies for tour.


Car rental: Most travel agencies, hotels and car rental companies can provide rental or chartered services for foreigners. If a foreigner plans to have a self¬drive road trip, he/she needs to show his/her passport and international driver's license to apply for a temporary driver's license of the People's Republic of China. He/she can also choose to rent a car with driver service, which is more convenient.


Air ticket and room booking: travel agencies generally provide consultancy as well as air ticket and room booking service for individual tourist. Most hotels provide air ticket and room booking service. Some other travel service agencies, such as ticket centers, also provide air and train ticket booking service for travelers.


6 Entertainment


6.1 Sports and Recreation Facilities


Large and medium-sized cities in China can offer sophisticated sports and recreation facilities. Golf clubs can be found in coastal cities and central cities in hinterland provinces. Most communities have gyms, bowling alleys, swimming pools and etc.


Hotels of three-star and above grade generally have bowling alleys, billiard rooms, gyms, cable TV, satellite TV and other entertainment facilities.


In recent years, extreme sports become popular in China, and a number of extreme sports clubs have set up, e.g. the skateboard club, unicycle club, bungee club, paragliding club and so on. Gymnasiums and sports centers regularly organize football, basketball, table tennis, badminton and track and field sports competitions.


In addition, there are Chinese acupuncture and massage, sauna physiotherapy, blind massage, herbal spa services of different grades.


In the outskirts of the city, there are large playgrounds, resorts, folk culture villages, wild animal parks, ecological parks, botanical gardens and fishing areas for holiday relaxation.


6.2 Culture and Art


Large and medium-sized cities in China have concert halls, theaters, and other venues to stage Chinese and foreign national concerts, symphony concerts, musicals, ballets, dramas, and acrobatics performances.


There are over 50 local operas across China, to name but a few: Peking Opera, Kunqu Opera, Shaoxing Opera, Henan Opera, Cantonese Opera, Shanxi Opera, Sichuan Opera, Ping Opera, Shanxi Opera, Hanchu Opera, Chaozhou Opera, Fujian Opera, Hebei Clapper, Hunan Opera, Huangmei (Anhui) Opera, Hunan Flower Drum Opera. Peking Opera, known as the "quintessence of Chinese culture" is the most famous of all. Operas are usually performed in the theater.


Watching movies is quite convenient, as every district in the city has cinemas, which also show the latest foreign movies.


Large cities also have museums and art centers for large displays of historic relics and artifacts, and exhibition of photographs and painting.


Each city has municipal and district Youth Palaces or Youth Centers open all year round to cultivate children's interest in calligraphy, painting, photography, music, dance, Chinese martial arts, aeromodelling, sculpture and so on.


6.3 Shopping


With its vast land, China boasts rich resources and specialties of all its localities, among others, silk, embroidery, ceramics, lacquer ware, tea, calligraphy and paintings, and antiques.


There are some famous markets for these specialties, for example, Beijing's Silk Street, Nanjing's Confucius Temple, Shanghai's Yuyuan Garden, Tianjin's Ancient Culture Street, Guangzhou's Qingping market and etc. In addition, the flower-and-bird markets and farmers' markets are also good places for shopping and entertainment.



第一节 入出境及居住


一、入境签证


外籍人士应凭有效签证入境,可向中国驻外国的外交代表机关、领事机关或者外交部授权的其他驻外机关申请办理签证。


根据外籍人士来华的身份和所持护照的种类,中国所发出的签证主要 包括外交签证、礼遇签证、公务签证及普通签证等。商务人士最常用的是普通签证,签发部门根据外籍人士申请来中国的事由,分为D字签证、Z 字签证、X字签证、F字签证及L字签证等。


D字签证发给来中国定居的人士;

Z字签证发给来中国任职或者就业的人员及其随行家属;

X字签证发给来中国留学、进修、实习6个月以上的人士;

F字签证发给应邀来中国访问、考察、讲学、经商、进行科技文化交流及短期进修、实习等活动不超过6个月的人士:

L字签证发给来中国旅游、探亲或者因其他私人事务入境的人士;

G字签证发给经中国过境的人员;

C字签证发给执行乘务、航空、航运任务的国际列车乘务员、国际航空器机组人员及国际航行船舶的海员及其随行家属;

J-I字签证发给来中国常驻的外国记者,J-2字签证发给临时来中国采访的外国记者。


外国人因急事来华,而又来不及在中国驻外机关申办签证的,只要持 有中国国内被授权单位的邀请函电,并持有与中国有外交关係或者官方贸易往来国家的普通护照,就可以向经国家公安部授权的□岸签证机关申请办理签证。□岸签证机关设在:北京、上海、天津、大连、福州、厦门、 西安、桂林、杭州、昆明、广州(白云机场)、深圳(罗湖、皇岗、蛇□)、珠海、拱北等地。


台港澳同胞入境适用国家有关规定,凭公安机关签发的入出境通行证、回乡证等, 从中国对外开放的□岸通行。


二、入境


外籍人士抵达□岸时,应首先向□岸检查处缴验护照、签证和有关证件,填写入境卡,经查验核准后方可入境。


入境旅客须向海关办理申报携带行李物品的有关手续。海关申报事宜请注意入境处所张贴告示,除禁止入境的货品外,海关准许进入境的外籍人士自用的合理数量范围的行李物品免税入境。


三、居留证件的办理


持标有D、Z、X、J-I字签证的外籍人士,以及根据中国政府同外国政府签订的协议免办签证入境需在中国停留30日以上的外籍人士,必须自入境之日起30日内到居住城市、县公安局办理外国人居留证或者外国人临时居留证。持标有F、L、G、C或J-2字签证的外国人,可以在签证注明的 期限内在中国停留,不需办理居留证件。


居留证件的有效期即为准许持证人在中国居留的期限。在中国居留1年以上的人员应办理居留证,外国人居留证有效期一般为1年至5年,在中国投资或者进行经济、科技、文化合作等有显著成效的外籍人士,可申请获得永久居留资格的证件。在中国居留不满1年的人员应办理外国人临时居留证。


从2013年7月1日起,外国人居留证有效期最短为180天。


四、出境


外籍人士须在签证准予停留的期限内或居留证件的有效期内出境。持有居留证件的人,若在居留证件有效期内出境并需返回中国的,应当在出境前向当地公安机关申请办理返回中国的签证;若出境后不再返回的,出境时应向中国边防检查站缴销居留证件。


第二节 房屋


房屋租赁:根据中国有关规定,出于维护国家安全、社会秩序或者其他公共利益的原因,市、县公安局可以限制外国人或者外国机构在某些地区设立住所或者办公处所。只有经过当地公安机关批准的涉外的房地产才可以出租给外籍人士,如外销商品房等。一般来说,外籍承租人是不能承 租普通居住社区或内销商品房的,不过在有些城市这种限制在逐渐放鬆。


房屋购买:外籍人士可以根据中国相关法律规定在中国境内购买商品房。外籍人士在中国境内购买的房产属于私有财产,必须在规定期限内,到房产所在地的房地产管理部门办理房屋所有权登记手续,领取房屋所有 权证。


房屋出售:外籍人士可以出售私有房屋,在出售房产后,买卖双方须向房产管理机关办理房屋所有权转移、变更登记手续。


房产继承:外籍人士继承在中国境内的房产须向居住国的公证机关申 请办理公证书,以证明其职业、住址,以及本人与在中国遗留有房产的被继承人的亲属关係。外籍人士继承中国境内的房产,属中国法律管辖。


第三节 子女基础教育


在中国,只有经省级教育部门批准获得接受外国学生资格的中小学才能接收外籍学生入校学习。目前,有三类这样的学校,即国际学校、对外 开放的学校和使馆学校。


国际学校:此类学校有两种,一种是由在中国境内合法设立的外国机构、 外资企业、国际组织的驻华机构,以及合法居留的外国人开办的国际学校。 如上海美国学校、上海日本人学校、上海德国学校、上海法国学校等;另 一种是外国机构和个人开办的补习中心。这类学校专门招收外籍学生,其教学课程分两大类,一类是教授“国际课程”的学校,以英语和英式教学为主。 另一类是教授“国别课程”的学校,以各自国家的教学大纲为蓝本进行教学。 这些类型不一的国际学校可提供从幼稚园直到高中的教育。


对外开放学校:是经省级教育部门批准后可以接受外籍学生的中小学,在各地均有此类学校。这类学校除安排必要的汉语补习外,一般不为外籍 学生单独编班。


使馆学校:主要招收外国驻华使领馆官员的子女和本国其他驻华人员的子女。


外籍学生一般应与其父母或监护人一起居住,有的学校为外籍学生提供校内宿舍。


外籍学生完成各科学业,考试合格,由学校发给毕业证书;未按计划完成全部学业者,可获得写实性学习证明。


第四节 医疗


一、医院的选择


中国的医院根据设施条件、技术水準、医疗服务品质等方面的综合水準, 由国家卫生部评定为一、二、三级(以三级医院的综合水準为最高),每级 医院又分为甲、乙、丙三等。一级医院主要为社区提供预防、医疗、保健、 康復服务,一般主要为卫生院。二级医院是地区性医院,提供综合医疗卫 生服务;三级医院主要提供高水準专科性医疗卫生服务。


大多数的医院都是由政府出资开办的,属于非营利性的服务机构。也 有少部分的医院和卫生所是由集体和个人举办的。除此之外,一些外国医 疗机构在中国设立了医疗机构,主要为外籍人士提供医疗服务。


外籍人士可以到任何医疗机构就医,费用标準与中国居民相同。一般来说,水準较高的医院,收费也较昂贵。


二、紧急救护


几乎所有医院都有急症室,为需要的病人提供紧急救助。当外籍人士 需要紧急救护时,医院可以预先垫付医疗费用,提供急诊、抢救、护送出 国等涉外医疗服务。


在中国各个城市还都设有“120”请求紧急救护。当遇到紧急情况时, 可拨打电话”120”请求紧急救护。


第五节旅游


一、旅游景点的对外开放情况


中国绝大多数市县对外国人开放,对外国人开放的市、县,外籍人士 持有效护照和中国的签证或居留证件,可自由前往,不必办理旅行许可。 外籍人士前往不对外国人开放的市、县旅行,须事先向所在地市、县公安 局申请旅行证。外籍人士未经允许,不得进入不对外开放的场所。


港澳台人士在大陆内地享受与内地居民同等待遇,可自由去各地参观旅游。


二、旅游配套服务


旅行社:中国的旅行社分为国际旅行社和国内旅行社。国际旅行社有 接待外国旅游者的资格,可以为外国旅游者安排交通、游览、住宿、饮食、 购物、娱乐及提供导游等相关服务,并且为旅游者代办入境、出境及签证 手续。国内旅行社一般只承揽国内旅游者在境内旅游业务。在中国境内工 作和生活的外籍人士如果参加旅行社组织的旅游团旅游,一般应选择国际旅行社。


车辆租赁:大多数的旅行社、酒店以及汽车租赁公司等,都可以为外籍人士提供租车或包车服务。如外籍人士打算自己驾车旅游,在办理租车手续时,须携带护照及国际 驾驶证办理换领中华人民共和国境 内临时驾驶证手续。外籍人士也可以 选择配司机的租赁车辆服务,对旅游 更方便。


机票、订房:旅行社一般都为 零散旅游者提供旅游諮询+代订机 票、代订客房等多种服务。大多数 酒店都提供代订机票、预定客房等 服务。还有一些旅游服务机构,如 票务中心,也为旅客提供预定车票、 机票等的服务。


一、康体游乐


在中国,大中城市的娱乐消閒设施日臻完备。在沿海或内地的中心城 市都设有高尔夫球倶乐部,在生活社区内均设有健身倶乐部、保龄球馆、 游泳馆等健身场所。


在三星级以上的酒店里.- 般设有保龄球室、桌球室、健身 房、闭路电视以及卫星电视等娱 乐设施。


近年来,极限运动在中国逐 渐兴起,成立了不少极限运动倶 乐部,如滑板倶乐部、独轮车倶 乐部、蹦极倶乐部、滑翔伞倶乐 部等。体育馆及体育中心经常举 办中外足球、篮球、乒乓球、羽毛球及田径等体育比赛。


另外,还有中医针灸推拿中心、桑拿理疗中心、盲人按摩、药液浴治 疗等可根据宾客的要求,提供不同档次的服务。


在城市近郊,建有大型游乐场、度假村、民俗文化村、野生动物园、生态公园、植物园以及垂钓区等,供节假日游乐。


二、文化艺术


在大中城市,均开设有音 乐厅、歌舞剧院等文化场所,经常举办中外民族音乐会、交 响音乐会、歌舞剧、芭蕾舞、话剧、杂技等表演。


中国各地都有地方戏曲,比较著名的剧种有:京剧、昆曲、越剧、豫剧、粤剧、秦腔、川剧、评剧、晋剧、汉剧、潮剧、闽剧、 河北梆子、湘剧、黄梅戏、湖南花鼓戏等五十多个剧种,尤以京剧流行最广, 被称为“国粹”。演出一般安排在剧场或戏院中进行。


看电影相当方便,在城市的各个城区都设有影视院,外国名片也都能 及时上演。


在大城市均设有博物馆、艺术中心等,经常举办大型文物、摄影、绘画、 工艺品等展出。


各城市都办有市级及区级的少年文化宫或活动中心,常年对少年儿童 开放。培养少儿在字画、摄影、音乐、舞蹈、中国武术、航模、雕塑等方 面兴趣的发展。


三、休闲购物


中国地大物博,物产丰富,各地产有特色商品,更是不胜枚举,其中 尤以丝绸、刺绣、陶瓷、漆器、茶叶、字画、古玩享有盛名。这些特色商品, 形成了各类专卖市场。如北京的 秀水街、南京的夫子庙、上海的 豫园、天津的古文化街、广州的 清平市场等。另外,花鸟鱼虫市场、农贸集市等也是消閒购物的好去处。