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----中国概况         China Overview

关键词:中国投资环境、外商投资法律法规、外商投资形式、企业注册登记、投资政策及优惠、中国(上海)自由贸易实验区、外商投资产业指导目录(2011年修订)、中西部地区外商投资优势产业目录(2013年修订)、外商投资项目核准、外商投资企业设立审批、外商投资企业设立程序、外籍人士在华生活、外国人就业、外国人出入境、外国人子女教育、房屋买卖和租赁、执业签证、就业许可证、居留证、个人所得税


Keywords: china overview, china laws and policies, foreign investment policies, form of foreign investment, enterpriese registration, preferencial policies, China (Shanghai) Pilot  Free Trade Zone, Three Catalogues of foreign investment Industries, Catalogue of Advantaged Industries for Foreign Investment in the Central-Western Region, examination and approval authority, procedures for establishing enterprises with foreign investment, living in China, entry and exist, residency, property, basic education for the children, employment procedures, work visa, residency permit






自然概况

Geography &

Demographics

文化习俗

Culture &

Customs

  政治体制

Political

System

教育体制

Education

System

经济指数

Economic

Index

Geography and Demographics


Located in East Asia, on the western shore of the Pacific Ocean, the People's Republic of China (PRC) has a land area of about 9.6 million square km, and is the third- largest country in the world, next only to Russia and Canada. China has many onshore neighbors, with Russia and Mongolia to the north, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan and India to the west, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam to the south and southeast, and Korea to the east. Across the seas to the east and southeast are Japan, the Philippines, Malaysia and etc.


The distance between the capital Beijing and Tokyo (Japan) and San Francisco (USA)to its east is 1,310 km and 5,800 km respectively; Paris(France) to its west, 5,090 km; Singapore to its south 2,790 km.


China has a marked continental monsoonal climate characterized by great variety. Northerly winds prevail in winter, while southerly winds reign in summer. The four seasons are quite distinct. The rainy season coincides with the hot season. In terms of temperature, the nation can be sectored from south to north into equatorial, tropical, sub¬tropical, warm-temperate, temperate, and cold-temperate zones; in terms of moisture, it can be sectored from southeast to northwest into humid (32 percent of the total land area), semi-humid (15 percent), semi-arid (22 percent) and arid zones (31 percent).


The average temperature of Beijing is - 4.4 in January and 26 in July. The average temperature of Shanghai is 4.3 in January and 27.9 in July. The average temperature of Guangzhou is 13.5 in January and 28.6 in July. The average temperature of Xi'an is -0.5 in January and 26.3 in July.


China is the most populous country in the world, with 1.35404 billion people by the end of 2012 (the statistics cover 31 provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the central government, and the People's Liberation Army servicemen, but exclude Hong Kong and Macao special administrative regions, Taiwan Province and overseas Chinese), In 2012, the population grew by 16.35 million with a birth rate of 12.10%o. The most densely populated region is the Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta, Sichuan Basin and Huanghuai Plain.



Political and Economic System


The People's Congress System is China's fundamental political system. National People's Congress (NPC) is the highest organ of the state power, and its permanent organ is the NPC Standing Committee. NPC and its Standing Committee exercise the power of legislation and election or removal of national leaders including the President.


The President of the People's Republic of China is the Head of State, and exercises both domestic functions and powers and those in foreign affairs. The latter includes receiving foreign diplomatic representatives, appointing or recalling China's plenipotentiary representatives abroad, and ratifying or abrogating treaties and important agreements concluded with foreign countries in pursuance of the decisions of the Standing Committee of the NPC.


The State Council (i.e. the Central People's Government), is the executive body of the highest organ of state power, i.e. the highest state administrative body. The State Council is responsible to the NPC and its Standing Committee, and reports to them on its work. The State Council is composed of 25 ministries, commissions and administrations (including the People' Bank of China and the National Auditing Office).


The judicial organ consists of the Supreme People's Court and local people's courts at all levels. The people's courts shall, in accordance with the law, exercise judicial power independently and are not subject to interference by administrative organs, public organizations or individuals. The legal supervision authority consists of the Supreme People's Procuratorate and local people's procuratorates at all levels. People's procuratorates shall, in accordance with the law, exercise procuratorial power independently and are not subject to interference by administrative organs, public organizations or individuals.


China implements the socialist market economy, whereby the government regulates the economy on the market basis. The supply of resources and the prices of most of the goods and services are market-based whereas a very small number of goods and services are priced by the government or the pricing is under the guidance of the government. Labor can flow freely; enterprises have full authority of their operation within the limits prescribed by law and are free from government intervention.


Economic Index


China's economic reform is making continuous progress with improved structural adjustment, steadily growing national economy, sound domestic market, ample reserve of major commodities, balanced international balance of payments, continuously improved living standards. Its social undertakings have correspondingly made great headway.


Since the reform and opening up, China is accelerating the pace of using foreign capital, and has formed a multi-level and omni-directional pattern. Overall, China’s use of foreign investment has shown a rising trend, although there was a slight decline in 2012, but the rising trend reappeared in 2013. In 2013, China’s actual use of foreign investment was $ 117.586 billion, a growth of 5.25% over the previous year.


Education


Since the reform and opening up, China has been implementing the strategy of rejuvenating the country through science and education, which puts education in a prioritized and strategic position. The whole country is basically covered by nine-year compulsory education. The reform on the Educational Management System has made great breakthrough and higher education has witnessed steady development. In 2012, the total number of students enrolled in graduate programs is 590,000, 1.72 million were working on the Master’s degree, and 486,000 accomplished their graduate study. As many as 6.888 million students were enrolled in undergraduate programs, 23.913 million were studying at college, and 6.247 million accomplished their college education. 7.61 million students were enrolled for various secondary vocational education, 21.203 million were studying at school, and 6.736 million accomplished their studies. 8.446 million students were enrolled by high schools, 24.672 million were studying at high school, and 7.915 million completed their high school education. The total number of students enrolled in junior middle school is 15.708 million, 47.631 million were study at junior school and 16.608 million finished their study.


Culture and Customs


The unique Chinese culture and customs formed since ancient times are a typical representation of the Far East's. Frugality, modesty and the family and community- oriented value are reflected by most Chinese people's day-to-day behavior. The Chinese people, comprising 56 ethnic groups, are inclusive and open to foreign cultures as a result of long-term integration of multi-ethnic groups. In the past century, China has transformed from the agricultural society to the industrial society and to the information society. Its culture and customs are also changing with the time. Western cultures are gradually assimilated into the Chinese culture. For example, thanks to the policy of religious freedom pursued by the Chinese government, Christianity and Catholicism are widely spread in China, as demonstrated by the presence of Christian and catholic churches in most cities in China. The statutory holidays in China are as follows: one- day holidays include New Year's Day, Tomb-Sweeping Day, Labor Day, Dragon Boat Festival, and Middle-Autumn Festival; three-day holidays include National Day and Spring Festival (in January or February).


自然概况


中国位于亚洲东部、太洋西岸,陆地面积约960万平方公里,仅次于俄罗斯和加拿大,居世界第三位。陆上邻国,北有俄罗斯、蒙古,西有哈萨克斯坦、吉尔吉斯斯坦、巴基斯坦、印度等国,南及东南有缅甸、平泰国、 越南等国,东与朝鲜接壌,东及东南与日本、菲律宾、马来西亚等国隔海相望。


首都北京,东距日本东京1310公里、美国三藩市5800公里;西距法国巴黎5090公里;南距新加坡2790公里。北京1月平均气温-4.4°C, 7月平均气温26°C ;上海1月平均气温4.3C, 7月平均气温27.9C;广州1月平均气温 13.5C,7月平均气温28.6C;西安1月平均气温-0.5°C,7月平均气温26.3C。


中国具有大陆性季风和气候复杂多样两大特征。冬季盛行偏北风,夏季盛行偏南风,四季分明,雨热同季。依照温度指标,从南向北可划分为赤道带、热带、亚热带、暖温带、温带、寒温带六个温度带;根据水分条件,从东南到西北可划分为湿润、半湿润、半干旱、干旱四类地形,分別占全国陆地总面积的32%、15%、22%、31%。


中国是世界上人□最多的国家,至2012年末,全国大陆总人口(包括31个省、 自治区、直辖市和中国人民解放军现役军人,不包括香港、澳门特別行政区和台湾省以及海外华侨人数)为135404万人。2012年出生人口 1635万人,出生率为12.10%。人□最密集的地区是长江三角洲、珠江三角洲、四川盆地和黃淮平原。


政治及经济体制


人民代表大会制度是中国的根本政治制度。中华人民共和国全国人民代表大会是最高国家权力机关,它的常设机关是全国人民代表大会常务委员会。全国人民代表大会和全国人民代表大会常务委员会行使国家立法权,选举或罢免国家主席等主要国家领导人。


中华人民共和国主席代表中华人民共和国,进行国事活动,接受外国使节;根据全国人民代表大会常务委员会的决定,派遣和召回驻外全权代表,批准和废除同外国缔结的条约和重要协定。


国务院(即中央人民政府)是中国最高国家权力机关的执行机关,是最高国家行政机关,对全国人民代表大会及其常务委员会负责并报告工作,其下设25部、委、行、署。


最高人民法院及地方各级人民法院是审判机关,人民法院依照法律规定独立行使审判权,不受行政机关、社会团体和个人的干涉。最高人民检察院及地方各级人民检察院是法律监督机关,人民检察院依照法律规定独立行使检察权,不受行政机关、社会团体和个人的干涉。


中国实行社会主义市场经济,政府对经济实施市场化管理,资源供应、大多数商品及服务价格实行市场调节价,极少数商品及服务价格实行政府指导价或者政府定价,劳动力可以自由流动,企业在法律规定的范围內自主经营,不受政府行政干预。


经济指数


中国经济体制改革进一步深化,结构调整取得积极进展,国民经济保持持续稳定增长,国內市场平稳运行,重要商品储备充裕,国际收支状况良好,人民生活不断改善,各项社会事业有了新的发展。改革开放以来,中国利用外资步伐不断加快,已形成多层次、全方位利用外资格局。总体而言,中国 利用外资呈增长趋势,虽然2012年有小幅下降,但2013年又出现回升趋势。 2013年,中国实际使用外资金额1175.86亿美元,同比增长5.25%。


教育


改革开放以来,中国实施科教兴国战略,将教育摆到了优先发展的战略地位,基本普及了九年义务教育。教育管理体制改革取得突破性进展,高等教育稳步发展。2012年,全国研究生教育招生59万人,在学研究生172万人,毕业生 48.6万人。全国普通高等教育本专科招生688.8万人,在校生2391.3万人,毕业 生624.7万人。各类中等职业教育招生761万人,在校生2120.3万人,毕业生 673.6万人。全国普通高中招生844.6万人,在校生2467.2万人,毕业生791.5万人。全国初中招生1570.8万人,在校生4763.1万人,毕业生1660.8万人。


文化习俗


古代文明中,中国是远东的典范,悠久的历史形成了独具特色的文化和习俗。俭约、谦恭的生活态度,注重家庭和社会的共同利益的价值取向,体现在多数中国人民的日常行为之中。中国有56个不同民族,多民族的长期融合,形成了中国人民对外来文化的开放心态,比较易于接受融合外来文化。 近代以来,中国社会经历了农业社会、工业社会到信息社会的转变,中国民众的风俗文化随著岁月的流逝而变迁。西方文明逐步融入中国文化,由于中国政府奉行宗教自由的政策,基督教、天主教在中国得到广泛传播,中国多数城市都有基督教堂和天主教堂。中国法定节假日包括每年元旦(全国放假一天)、清明节(全国放假一天)、五月一日劳动节(全国放假一天)、端午节(全国放假一天)、十月一日国庆节(全国放假三天)、中秋节(全国放假一天)和中国传统节日舂节(全国放假三天,在每年一月份或二月份)。