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合同纠纷篇         Contract Disputes

合同订立的程序_合同的内容和解释_双务合同履行抗辩权_合同的变更_合同的解除_违约责任_缔约过失责任_买卖合同_赠与合同_借款合同_租赁合同_融资租赁合同_承揽合同_建设工程合同_运输合同_保管合同_委托合同_行纪合同_居间合同_技术开发合同_技术转让合同_技术咨询合同_技术服务合同_有名合同_无名合同


Express contractual obligation, implied-in-fact contractual obligation, quantum meruit, offer, offer invitation, option contract, promissory estoppel, mailbox rule, battle of the forms, contracts formed by conduct, transactions without pre-printed forms, shrink-warp contracts, statute of frauds, gap-fillers with default provisions, contra proferentem, doctrine of reasonable expectations, usage of trade, course of dealing, course of performance, parol evidence rule, anticipatory repudiation, monetary damages, equitable remedy, restitution and unjust enrichment, third-party beneficiaries, assignment of rights, delegation of duties

争议解决    Dispute Resolution

协商 Negotiation

调解 Mediation

诉讼 Litigation

仲裁 Arbitration

自行协商、律师介入协商


negotiation by the parties themself or by attorneys as their respective respresentatives

聘请独立第三方调解,国内较少采用


An independent third party as mediator, rarely adopted in China

国内仲裁、国际仲裁

仲裁机构的选择


Arbitration at home or abroad

The choice of arbitration institutions

国内诉讼、国际诉讼

管辖法院的选择


Litigation at home or abroad

Choice of Jurisdication

主要合同类型 Contract Classification

买卖合同 Purrchase & Sales Contract

供用电、水、气、热力合同 Contracts for the Supply and Consumption of Electricity, Water, Gas or Heat

赠与合同 Donation Contract

借款合同 Loan Contract

租赁合同 Lease Contract

融资租赁合同 Financial Lease Contract

运输合同 Carrier Contract

保管合同 Custody Contract

仓储合同 Warehousing Contract

委托合同 Entrustment Contract

行纪合同 Brokerage Contract

居间合同 Intermediation Contract

转移财产权利

的合同

Transfer of Property Rights


提供劳务

的合同

Rendering of Services


有名合同

nominate contract

技术开发合同 Technology Development Contract

技术转让合同 Technology Transfer Contract

技术咨询合同 Technology Consulting Contract

技术服务合同 Technology Service Contract

完成工作成果

的合同

Performance of Works


技术合同


Technology Related


承揽合同 Work Contract

建设工程合同 Construction Project Contract

(1) Real Estate Contract

(2) Guaranty/Suretyship Contract

(3) Equity Joint Venture Contract, Cooperative Joint Venture Contract, Exploration and Development of Natural Resources Contract

(4) Management Contract

(5) Labor Contract

(6) Intellectual Property Contract

(7) Partnership Contract

(8) Insurance Contract

(9) Training Contract, Bill Discount Contract, Savings Deposit Contract, Film Contract, Advertisement Contract, etc.


(1) 房地产合同

(2) 担保合同

(3) 中外合资经营企业合同,中外合作企业合同、中外合作勘探开发自然资源合同等

(4) 承包经营合同

(5) 劳动合同

(6) 知识产权合同

(7) 合伙合同

(8) 保险合同

(9) 培训合同、票据贴现合同、储蓄合同、影视合同、广告合同等。


无名合同

innominate contract


合同最常见纠纷示例    Common Contract Disputes 
1​
商家不一定需要兑现商业广告上的内容。 The merchant is not necessarily bound by its commercial advertisement.

要约与要约邀请的区别


要约是希望和他人订立合同的意思表示,该意思表示应当符合下列规定:

   (一)内容具体确定;

   (二)表明经受要约人承诺,要约人即受该意思表示约束。


要约邀请是希望他人向自己发出要约的意思表示。寄送的价目表、拍卖公告、招标公告、招股说明书、商业广告等为要约邀请。


商业广告的内容符合要约规定的,才视为要约。


Differences between Offer and Offer Invitation


An "offer" is an intent indication showing the desire to enter into a contract with others, and the intent indication shall conform to the following provisions:

(1) the content indicated shall be concrete and definite;

(2) the offeror shall, as is indicated, be bound by the intent indication upon its acceptance by an offeree.


An offer invitation is an intent indicating the desire to receive offers from others. Mailed or delivered price catalogs, auction announcements, invitations for bid, capital-raising prospectus and commercial advertisements are offer invitations.


A commercial advertisement shall, if its content conforms to the provisions regarding offers, be deemed an offer.


2​
合同上白底黑字写明的权利义务不一定有效。 Terms and conditions expressly stipulated in the contracts are not necessarily valid.

合同无效和可撤销的情形


有下列情形之一的,合同无效:

   (一)一方以欺诈、胁迫的手段订立合同,损害国家利益;

   (二)恶意串通,损害国家、集体或者第三人利益;

   (三)以合法形式掩盖非法目的;

   (四)损害社会公共利益;

   (五)违反法律、行政法规的强制性规定。


合同中的下列免责条款无效:

   (一)造成对方人身伤害的;

   (二)因故意或者重大过失造成对方财产损失的。


下列合同,当事人一方有权请求人民法院或者仲裁机构变更或者撤销:

   (一)因重大误解订立的;

   (二)在订立合同时显失公平的。


   一方以欺诈、胁迫的手段或者乘人之危,使对方在违背真实意思的情况下订立的合同,受损害方有权请求人民法院或者仲裁机构变更或者撤销。


   当事人请求变更的,人民法院或者仲裁机构不得撤销。


Circumstances when a contract is null and void or can be rescinded


A contract is null and void under any of the following circumstances:

(1) either party enters into the contract by means of fraud or coercion and impairs the State's interests;

(2) there is malicious conspiracy causing damage to the interests of the State, of the collective or of a  third party;

(3) there is an attempt to conceal illegal goals under the disguise of legitimate forms;

(4) harm is done to social and public interests; or

(5) mandatory provisions of laws and administrative regulations are violated.


The following clauses on liability exemption in a contract shall be null and void​:

(1) those causing physical injury to the other party; or

(2) those causing  losses to property of the other party deliberately or due to gross negligence.


Either party has the right to request a people's court or an arbitration institution to alter or rescind any of the following contracts:

(1) any contract which is made under serious misunderstanding; or

(2) any contract  which is unfair at the time of formation.

Where a party makes the other party enter into a contract against his/her true will by means of deceit, coercion or taking advantage of its difficulties, the grieved party has the right to request a people's court or an arbitration institution to alter or rescind the contract.

Where the request of the party is an alteration to the contract, the people's court or arbitration institution shall not rescind it.


3​
即使合同上没写,签约方也可能需要承担一定的义务。Signing parties might be bound by obligations not stipulated in the contract.

条款缺失时的默认处理方式


合同生效后,当事人就质量、价款或者报酬、履行地点等内容没有约定或者约定不明确的,可以协议补充;不能达成补充协议的,按照合同有关条款或者交易习惯确定。


依照上述规定仍不能确定的,适用下列规定:


   (一)质量要求不明确的,按照国家标准、行业标准履行;没有国家标准、行业标准的,按照通常标准或者符合合同目的的特定标准履行。


   (二)价款或者报酬不明确的,按照订立合同时履行地的市场价格履行;依法应当执行政府定价或者政府指导价的,按照规定履行。


   (三)履行地点不明确,给付货币的,在接受货币一方所在地履行;交付不动产的,在不动产所在地履行;其他标的,在履行义务一方所在地履行。


   (四)履行期限不明确的,债务人可以随时履行,债权人也可以随时要求履行,但应当给对方必要的准备时间。


   (五)履行方式不明确的,按照有利于实现合同目的的方式履行。


   (六)履行费用的负担不明确的,由履行义务一方负担。


Filling in the Gaps with Default Provisions


When a contract becomes effective, but terms on quality, price or remuneration or the place of performance are missing or unclear, the parties may supplement them by agreement; if they are unable to reach a supplementary agreement, the terms shall be determined in accordance with the pertinent clauses of the contract or with course of dealing.


If the terms still fails to be determined in accordance with the above rule, the following provisions shall apply:


(1) in case of unclear quality requirements, the contract shall be performed in accordance with State standards or trade standards, or in the absence of such standards, in accordance with common standards or special standards conforming to the purpose of the contract;

(2) in case of unclear price or remuneration, the contract shall be performed in accordance with the market price in the place of contract performance at the time of formation, or according to the government-set price or government-guided price if it is so required by law;

(3) in case of unclear place of performance, where the payment is in cash, the contract shall be performed in the place of the cash recipient; where real estate is delivered, the contract shall be performed in the place where the real estate is located; where other subjects are involved, the contract shall be performed in the place of the party fulfilling the obligations;

(4) in case of unclear time limit for the performance, the debtor may fulfill its obligations at any time, and the creditor may demand the fulfillment at any time, provided that he/she gives the debtor necessary time to make preparations;

(5) in case of unclear mode of performance, the contract shall be performed in a manner conducive to the realization of the purpose of the contract; and

(6) in case of unclear charge for the performance, the charge shall be borne by the party fulfilling the obligations.


违约责任    Liabilities for Breach of Contract 

赔偿损失 Compensate Damages

继续履行 Continue to Perform

采取补救措施 Take Remedial Measures

金钱债务:无条件继续履行。

非金钱债务:有条件继续履行。不履行的情形为:

(1) 不能履行(2)不适合履行(3)债权人在合理期限内未能请求履行。


Pecuniary liabilities:unconditional perforamnce.

Non-pecuniary liabilities: conditional perforamnce. The excused condtions are: (1)

Impossibility, (2) Impracticability, and (3) Creditor's failure to demand performance within a reasonable period.

法定损失赔偿、约定损失赔偿


注意违约金和罚金的区别



remedies at law, Liquidated Damages


Note the differences between "liquidated damages" and "penalty": 

A penalty is a sum that is disproportionate to the actual harm.



修理、更换、重做、退货、减少价款或报酬等


repair, replacement, redoing, return of the subjects, discount in payment or remuneration,etc.


美国法下赔偿方法常用概念 Commonly Used Concepts for Remedies Under the USA Law


Remedies at law, restitutionary remedies, equitable remedies, Compensatory damages, general damages, special damages, harm to economic interests, conversion, trespass to chattels, nominal damages, punitive damages, collateral source rule, liquidated damages, consequential damages, incidental damages, reliance damages, expectation measure, ejectment, replevin, constructive trust, equitable lien, lowest intermediate balance rule, quasi-contract, temporary restraining orders, preliminary injunctions, permanent injunctions